Amonia

Suatu senyawa anorganik dengan rumus NH3. Bersifat racun bagi hewan dan manusia, sehingga oleh hati diubah menjadi urea, suatu zat yang tidak berbahaya.

Amonia (Wikipedia)
For NH4+, see Ammonium. For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation).
Ammonia
Ball-and-stick model of the ammonia molecule
Space-filling model of the ammonia molecule
Stereo structural formula of the ammonia molecule
Names
IUPAC name
Azane
Other names
Hydrogen nitride

Trihydrogen nitride

Nitrogen trihydride
Identifiers
3D model (Jmol)
3DMet B00004
3587154
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.760
EC Number 231-635-3
79
KEGG
MeSH Ammonia
RTECS number BO0875000
UNII
UN number 1005
Properties
NH3
Molar mass 17.031 g/mol
Appearance Colourless gas
Odor strong pungent odour
Density 0.86 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at boiling point)

0.769  kg/m3 (STP)
0.73 kg/m3 (1.013 bar at 15 °C)
681.9 kg/m3 at −33.3 °C (liquid) See also Ammonia_(data_page)
817 kg/m3 at −80 °C (transparent solid)

Melting point −77.73 °C (−107.91 °F; 195.42 K) (Triple point at 6.060 kPa, 195.4 K)
Boiling point −33.34 °C (−28.01 °F; 239.81 K)
47% w/w (0 °C)
31% w/w (25 °C)
18% w/w (50 °C)
Solubility soluble in chloroform, ether, ethanol, methanol
Vapor pressure 857.3 kPa
Acidity (pKa) 32.5 (−33 °C), 10.5 (DMSO)
Basicity (pKb) 4.75
-18.0·10−6 cm3/mol
1.3327
Viscosity 0.276 cP (−40 °C)
Structure
C3v
Trigonal pyramid
1.42 D
Thermochemistry
193 J·mol−1·K−1
−46 kJ·mol−1
Hazards
Safety data sheet See: data page
ICSC 0414 (anhydrous)
GHS pictograms GHS-pictogram-bottle.svgGHS-pictogram-acid.svgGHS-pictogram-skull.svgGHS-pictogram-pollu.svg
H221, H280, H314, H331, H400
P210, P261, P273, P280, P305+351+338, P310
Toxic T Corrosive C Dangerous for the Environment (Nature) N
R-phrases R10, R23, R34, R50
S-phrases (S1/2), S9, S16, S26, S36/37/39, S45, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oilHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroformReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point flammable gas
651 °C (1,204 °F; 924 K)
Explosive limits 15–28%
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
0.015 mL/kg (human, oral)
40,300 ppm (rat, 10 min)
28595 ppm (rat, 20 min)
20300 ppm (rat, 40 min)
11590 ppm (rat, 1 hr)
7338 ppm (rat, 1 hr)
4837 ppm (mouse, 1 hr)
9859 ppm (rabbit, 1 hr)
9859 ppm (cat, 1 hr)
2000 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
4230 ppm (mouse, 1 hr)
5000 ppm (mammal, 5 min)
5000 ppm (human, 5 min)
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
50 ppm (25 ppm ACGIH- TLV; 35 ppm STEL)
REL (Recommended)
TWA 25 ppm (18 mg/m3) ST 35 ppm (27 mg/m3)
IDLH (Immediate danger)
300 ppm
Related compounds
Other cations
Phosphine
Arsine
Stibine
Related nitrogen hydrides
Hydrazine
Hydrazoic acid
Related compounds
Ammonium hydroxide
Supplementary data page
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constantr), etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
solid–liquid–gas
UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (what is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. The simplest pnictogen hydride, ammonia is a colourless gas with a characteristic pungent smell. It contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to food and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical products and is used in many commercial cleaning products.

Although common in nature and in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous in its concentrated form. It is classified as an extremely hazardous substance in the United States as defined in Section 302 of the U.S. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (42 U.S.C. 11002), and is subject to strict reporting requirements by facilities which produce, store, or use it in significant quantities.

The global industrial production of ammonia in 2014 was 176 million tonnes (173,000,000 long tons; 194,000,000 short tons), a 16% increase over the 2006 global industrial production of 152 million tonnes (150,000,000 long tons; 168,000,000 short tons). Industrial ammonia is sold either as ammonia liquor (usually 28% ammonia in water) or as pressurized or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in tank cars or cylinders.

NH3 boils at −33.34 °C (−28.012 °F) at a pressure of one atmosphere, so the liquid must be stored under pressure or at low temperature. Household ammonia or ammonium hydroxide is a solution of NH3 in water. The concentration of such solutions is measured in units of the Baumé scale (density), with 26 degrees baumé (about 30% (by weight) ammonia at 15.5 °C or 59.9 °F) being the typical high-concentration commercial product.