ammonium chloride

suatu bahan pengasam urine dan sistemik dan diuretik yang diberikan secara oral atau melalui infus intravena. Juga diberikan secara oral sebagai ekspektoran. Disebut juga ammonium muriate dan sal ammoniac.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
ammonium chloride (noun)
a white crystalline volatile salt NHCl that is used in dry cells and as an expectorant - 4 called also sal ammoniac
ammonium chloride (Wikipedia)
Ammonium chloride
Unit cell of ammonium chloride
Powder of ammonium chloride
Names
IUPAC name
Ammonium chloride
Other names
Sal ammoniac, Salmiac, Nushadir salt, Sal armagnac, Salt armoniack
Identifiers
3D model (Jmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.031.976
EC Number 235-186-4
KEGG
RTECS number BP4550000
UNII
Properties
ClH4N
Molar mass 53.49 g·mol−1
Appearance White solid, hygroscopic
Odor Odorless
Density 1.5274 g/cm3
Melting point 338 °C (640 °F; 611 K) decomposes, sublimes
Boiling point 520 °C (968 °F; 793 K)
Sublimes at 337.6 °C
ΔsublHo = 176.1 kJ/mol
244 g/L (−15 °C)
294 g/L (0 °C)
383.0 g/L (25 °C)
454.4 g/L (40 °C)
740.8 g/L (100 °C)
30.9 (395 g/L)
Solubility Soluble in liquid ammonia, hydrazine, alcohol, methanol, glycerol
Slightly soluble in acetone
Insoluble in diethyl ether, ethyl acetate
Solubility in methanol 3.2 g/100 g (17 °C)
3.35 g/100 g (19 °C)
3.54 g/100 g (25 °C)
Solubility in ethanol 6 g/L (19 °C)
Solubility in glycerol 97 g/kg
Solubility in sulfur dioxide 0.09 g/kg (0 °C)
0.031 g/kg (25 °C)
Solubility in acetic acid 0.67 g/kg (16.6 °C)
Vapor pressure 133.3 Pa (160.4 °C)
6.5 kPa (250 °C)
33.5 kPa (300 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 9.24
-36.7·10−6 cm3/mol
1.642 (20 °C)
Thermochemistry
84.1 J/mol·K
94.56 J/mol·K
−314.43 kJ/mol
−202.97 kJ/mol
Pharmacology
B05XA04 (WHO) G04BA01 (WHO)
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 1051
GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
GHS signal word Warning
H302, H319
P305+351+338
Harmful Xn Irritant Xi
R-phrases R22, R36
S-phrases (S2), S22
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroformReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1650 mg/kg (rats, oral)
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
none
REL (Recommended)
TWA 10 mg/m3 ST 20 mg/m3 (as fume)
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.
Related compounds
Other anions
Ammonium fluoride
Ammonium bromide
Ammonium iodide
Other cations
Sodium chloride
Potassium chloride
Hydroxylammonium chloride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Ammonium chloride is an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl and a white crystalline salt that is highly soluble in water. Solutions of ammonium chloride are mildly acidic. Sal ammoniac is a name of the natural, mineralogical form of ammonium chloride. The mineral is commonly formed on burning coal dumps from condensation of coal-derived gases. It is also found around some types of volcanic vents. It is mainly used as fertilizer and a flavouring agent in some types of liquorice. It is the product from the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia.