Aflatoxin

Toksin yang dhasilkan oleh Aspergillus flavus dan A. parasiticus, jamur yang mengkontaminasi semaian kacang tanah; memproduksi aflatoksikosis (penyakit x), dengan kecepatan kematian tinggi, pada kematian unggas dan hewan peternakan lain yang diberi makan kacang tanah yang tercemar dan diimplikasikan sebagai penyebab karsinoma pada hati manusia.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
aflatoxin (noun)
any of several carcinogenic mycotoxins that are produced especially in stored agricultural crops (as peanuts) by molds (as ) - Aspergillus flavus
Aflatoxin (Wikipedia)
Not to be confused with Alpha toxin.
Chemical structure of aflatoxin B1

Aflatoxins are poisonous and cancer-causing chemicals that are produced by certain molds (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus) which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay, and grains. They are regularly found in improperly stored staple commodities such as cassava, chili peppers, corn, cotton seed, millet, peanuts, rice, sesame seeds, sorghum, sunflower seeds, tree nuts, wheat, and a variety of spices. When contaminated food is processed, aflatoxins enter the general food supply where they have been found in both pet and human foods, as well as in feedstocks for agricultural animals. Animals fed contaminated food can pass aflatoxin transformation products into eggs, milk products, and meat. For example, contaminated poultry feed is suspected in the findings of high percentages of samples of aflatoxin contaminated chicken meat and eggs in Pakistan.

Children are particularly affected by aflatoxin exposure, which leads to stunted growth, delayed development, liver damage, and liver cancer. Adults have a higher tolerance to exposure, but are also at risk. No animal species is immune. Aflatoxins are among the most carcinogenic substances known. After entering the body, aflatoxins may be metabolized by the liver to a reactive epoxide intermediate or hydroxylated to become the less harmful aflatoxin M1.

Aflatoxins are most commonly ingested, but the most toxic type of aflatoxin, B1, can permeate through the skin.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action levels for aflatoxin present in food or feed is 20 to 300 ppb. The FDA has had occasion to declare both human and pet food recalls as a precautionary measure to prevent exposure.

The term "aflatoxin" is derived from the name of one of the molds that produce it, Aspergillus flavus. It was coined around 1960 after its discovery as the source of "Turkey X disease". Aflatoxins form one of the major groupings of mycotoxins.